RIIot RF Technology Overview
RIIoT RF is the highly reliable RF protocol used by RIIoT. It is a IEE802.15.4 g/e protocol with CBOR encoding, using a Ack/Retry scheme for maximum reliability.
The role of IEEE 802.15 Smart Utility Networks (SUN) Task Group 4g is to create a PHY amendment to 802.15.4 to provide a global standard that facilitates very large scale process control applications such as the utility smart-grid network capable of supporting large, geographically diverse networks with minimal infrastructure, with potentially millions of fixed endpoints. The 802.15.4g was released in April 2012.
The IEEE 802.15 Task Group 4e was chartered to define a MAC amendment to the existing standard 802.15.4-2006. The intent of this amendment was to enhance and add functionality to the 802.15.4-2006 MAC to a) better support the industrial markets and b) permit compatibility with modifications being proposed within the Chinese WPAN. The 802.15.4g was approved in 2011.
The result is a very reliable, power efficient PHY/MAC for that targets habitat monitoring, process automation, factory automation, smart metering, home automation, smart building, entertainment, patient monitoring and telemedicine applications.
IEEE802.15.4g/e is supported by many of the major semiconductor suppliers. It is used in existing wireless standard such as Wi-SUN, for utilities, and is using techniques from known standards such as WirelessHART and ISA 100.11.a
The RIIoT RF additions
The RIIoT RF additions resides on top of the 802.15.4 g/e and is designed for Industrial IoT requirements meaning:
- Low power
- High reliability
- Long range
- Ease of design
The Concise Binary Object Representation (CBOR). The Application layer uses data CBOR encoding, a very efficient encoding that is fully compatible with JSO. This ensures, in addition to the low power, also compatibility with protocols used with Cloud application.
Ack/Retries. This reliability feature is built into the 802.15.4e MAC, where acknowledgement frames are used to acknowledge every request frame. The MAC layer send retries if ACK is not received.
5kbit mode, an optional low data rate option, that is beyond the IEEE802.15.5g. This can be used for network that required long range. Up to 8km (LOS) for long range.
Frequency hopping for higher reliability. Compliant with the DFE mode in the WiSUN specification.
AES-CCM: an authenticated encryption scheme that protects network data against eavesdropping, modification, replay and impersonations. It offers confidentiality, integrity and authenticity assurances. RiiOT offers this additional layer of encryption on top of what is offered in IEEE802.15.4 so that each link in the network is protected by a unique key while supporting hundreds of nodes.
White list: A whitelist of nodes can be set on the RIIoT net controller so that only the nodes on the list can be allowed to join the network.
End-to-end encryption: An optional layer of end-to-end encryption is available where the encryption key is only known to the node and user application in the cloud. The data is protected from attacks along the full routing path, including the gateway.
Over-the-Air Update: Supports over-the-air update of end nodes. Both user application and RF system firmware can be updated. Can support updating of multiple nodes simultaneously.